Bank of Japan (BoJ) News

Japan Currency JPY

USD/JPY: Yen Strengthens Following BoJ Summary

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BOJ Summary of Opinions: Economy in “Moderate Recovery” On Stronger Exports, Industrial Production

The Japanese economy is on a "moderate recovery trend" thanks to stronger exports and industrial production, the Bank of Japan's December 19-20 Summary of Opinions...
Japan Currency US Dollar USD/JPY

USD/JPY: Near the Highs Following Bank of Japan Rate Decision

USD/JPY is higher in today's trading, holding near the 117.91 level, up 0.71% over Monday's North American close. With today's gain, the pair appears...
Japan

Nikkei 225 Posts Fresh 12-Month High, Bank Of Japan Holds Policy Steady

There were no surprises from the Bank of Japan with an unchanged policy. The dollar recovered ground and regional risk appetite held steady with...
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BOJ Rate Decision: Bank of Japan Keeps Policy on Hold in Final Meeting of...

The Bank of Japan (BOJ) kept monetary policy on hold Tuesday, as officials continued to track a slow-moving economy that has shown only modest...

The Bank of Japan (BoJ) was formed in 1882 to provide central banking facilities and has been the subject of two major revisions in 1942 and 1997. The bank’s functions are defined under the Bank of Japan Act.

Bank of Japan Responsibilities

The Bank of Japan has three main responsibilities:

  • Currency and monetary control
  • Issuance of banknotes
  • Financial system stability

Is the Bank of Japan Independent?

The Bank of Japan, in theory, has full operational independence surrounding its decision making following the 1997 Act, but there is still a very strong degree of co-operation with the Ministry of Finance, which also retains a strong degree of influence over policy decisions. In practice, the Bank of Japan has only limited independence.

The Bank Governor is very frequently called to testify in parliament, although the overall impact is often very limited given that parliament has little overall authority with power firmly in control of the Finance Ministry and overall Cabinet.

BoJ Monetary Policy Objective

The Bank of Japan Act states that the bank’s monetary policy should be aimed at achieving price stability, thereby contributing to the sound development of the national economy. In 2013, the bank set the price stability target as achieving a 2% consumer inflation rate. The bank also made a commitment to achieving this target at the earliest possible time, although this time scale has effectively been pushed back after continued failures to make progress.

Monetary Policy Operation

The Bank of Japan adjusts monetary policy in order to achieve its inflation target of 2%. At present, this is achieved by targeting a specific annual expansion of the monetary base through the buying of government bonds through its quantitative easing programme. The Bank of Japan also changes the rate of interest rates on bank deposits, although it is not currently targeting the overnight lending rate.

The BoJ Policy Board

Any changes in monetary policy are agreed through the Policy Board at Monetary Policy Meetings (MPMs), which are held eight times per year.

The Policy Board is comprised of the Governor, two Deputy Governors and six other members. The decisions are made by a majority vote.

Following the meeting, the bank will issue a policy statement that summarises its decision. In contrast to other G7 central banks, there is no specific time for a policy announcement to be made, which increases potential volatility, although it is usually within a window of around 2 hours.

Governor’s Press Conference

Following the monetary policy statement, the Bank of Japan Governor holds a press conference to discuss the decision and any other aspects of the policy meeting that need to be highlighted.

MPM Summary of Views

The Bank of Japan produces a summary of its policy meeting around 10 days after the policy meeting with a brief summary of the discussion and policy views.

BoJ MPM Minutes

The full minutes of monetary policy meetings are released around 8-9 weeks after meetings and are usually released after the next meetings have taken place, which substantially diminishes any potential impact.

BoJ Publications

The Bank of Japan produces various reports on the economy including a monthly report on recent economic and financial developments. Reports are often released in Japanese first with translations available slightly later.

Bank of Japan Speeches

The Bank Governor makes speeches during his time in office. These are important in setting out his thoughts on the economy and potential trends in interest rates, especially if prepared comments are followed by a Q&A session. Comments from other bank members tend to have little overall impact.

The Finance Ministry and Bank of Japan tend to work in close co-ordination with each other and the Finance Minister often makes remarks to the press.

Statistics

The Bank of Japan produces a number of data releases relating to credit and money supply. It also produces the current account data and the Tankan survey on business confidence.

Currency intervention

The Bank of Japan has three stages of intervention in the market, although the decision on whether to actually intervene in the market comes under the control of the Finance Ministry.

  • There is the potential for verbal intervention with warnings by the bank and Finance Ministry that there could be action to stabilise markets.
  • In the next stage, the Bank of Japan can then check rates at commercial banks and prepare to intervene without actually taking action.
  • In the third stage, the Bank of Japan can then actually intervene in the market. This can be aggressive and sustained on occasions and inevitably triggers a substantial market reaction.
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